Qvortrup, L. . Niklas Luhmann: Sociale systemer. Grundrids til en almen teori. MedieKultur: Journal of Media and Communication Research, 10(22). The context of Niklas Luhmann's theory. Santrauka teorinio mąstymo pertvarkymas. Siekiama išvengti sequent discussion of Luhmann's notion of ti-. Action and Communication in Niklas Luhmann's Social Theory. Written by A. Veiksmas ir komunikacija Niklaso Luhmanno socialinėje teorijoje. Failo dydis.


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After graduating from the Johanneum school inhe was conscripted as a Luftwaffenhelfer in World War II and served for two years until, at the age of teori niklas luhmann, he was taken prisoner of war by American troops in During a sabbatical inhe went to Harvardwhere he met and studied under Talcott Parsonsthen the world's most influential social systems theorist.

In later years, Luhmann dismissed Teori niklas luhmann theory, developing a rival approach of his own. He continued to publish after his retirement, when he finally found the time to complete his magnum opus, Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft literally, "The Society of Society"which was published inand translated subsequently in English, under the title "Theory of Society" volume I in and volume II in Works[ edit teori niklas luhmann Luhmann wrote prolifically, with more than 70 books and nearly scholarly articles published on a variety of subjects, including law, economy, politics, art, religion, ecology, mass media, and love.

While his theories have yet to make a major mark in American sociology, his theory is currently well known and popular in German sociology, [6] and has also been rather intensively received in Japan and Eastern Europe, including Russia.


His relatively low profile elsewhere is partly due to the fact that translating his work is a difficult task, since his writing presents a challenge even to readers of German, including many sociologists.

Like his one-time mentor Talcott ParsonsLuhmann is an advocate of "grand theory," although neither in the sense of philosophical foundationalism nor in the sense of "meta-narrative" as often invoked in the critical works of post-modernist writers.

Rather, Luhmann's work tracks closer to complexity theory broadly speaking, in that it aims to address any aspect of social life within a universal theoretical framework - of which the diversity of subjects he wrote about is an indication.

Luhmann's theory is sometimes dismissed as highly abstract and complex, particularly within the Anglophone teori niklas luhmann, whereas his work has had a more lasting influence on scholars from German-speaking countries, Scandinavia and Italy. Social systems are systems of communication, and society is the most encompassing social system.

Niklas Luhmann - Wikipedia

Being the social system that comprises all and only communication, today's society is a world society. The interior of the system is thus teori niklas luhmann zone of reduced complexity: Communication within a system operates by selecting only a limited amount of all information available outside.

This process is also called "reduction of complexity". The criterion according to which information is selected and processed is meaning in German, Sinn. Both social systems and psychic systems see below for an explanation of this distinction operate by processing meaning.

Furthermore, each system has a distinctive identity that is constantly reproduced in its communication and depends on what is considered meaningful teori niklas luhmann what is not. If a system fails to maintain that identity, it ceases to exist as a system and dissolves back into the environment it emerged from.

Niklas Luhmann

Luhmann called this process of reproduction from elements previously filtered from an over-complex environment autopoiesis pronounced "auto-poy-E-sis"; literally: Social systems are operationally closed in that while they teori niklas luhmann and rely on resources from their environment, those resources do not become part of teori niklas luhmann systems' operation.

Both thought and digestion are important preconditions for communication, but neither appears in communication as such.


Note, however, that Maturana argued very vocally that this appropriation of autopoietic theory teori niklas luhmann conceptually unsound, as it presupposes the autonomy of communications from actual persons.

That is, by describing social systems as operationally closed networks of communications, Luhmann according to Maturana ignores the fact that communications presuppose human communicators.

Autopoiesis only applies to networks of processes that reproduce themselves, [11] but communications are reproduced by humans. For this reason, the analogy from biology to sociology does not, in this case, hold. Communication is made possible by human bodies and consciousness [13]but this does not make communication operationally open.

To "participate" in communication, one must be able to render one's thoughts teori niklas luhmann perceptions into elements of communication.

Action and Communication in Niklas Luhmann’s Social Theory - VU

This can only ever occur as a communicative operation thoughts and perceptions cannot be directly transmitted and must therefore satisfy internal system conditions that are specific to communication: Luhmann likens the operation of autopoiesis the filtering and processing of information from the environment to a programmaking a series of logical distinctions in German, Unterscheidungen.

Here, Luhmann refers to the British mathematician G. Spencer-Brown 's logic of teori niklas luhmann that Maturana and Varela had earlier identified as a model teori niklas luhmann the functioning of any cognitive process.

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