Nat Cell Biol. Feb;3(2):E A profile of fertilization in mammals. Wassarman PM(1), Jovine L, Litscher ES. Author information: (1)Department of. The role of spermatozoa is to fertilize eggs. However, mammalian spermatozoa cannot accomplish this task when ejaculated. In this Primer, I discuss the factors that have been implicated in the various stages of fertilization, ranging from sperm capacitation and migration to sperm-egg fusion. Fertilization is the culminating event of sexual reproduction, which involves the union of the sperm and egg to form a single, genetically distinct organism.


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In this process, molecules bound to the acrosomal vesicle membrane, such as bindin, are exposed on the surface of the sperm. These contents digest the jelly coat and eventually mammalian fertilization vitelline membrane.

The cell biology of mammalian fertilization.

In addition to the release mammalian fertilization acrosomal vesicles, there is explosive polymerisation of actin to form a thin spike at the head of the sperm called the acrosomal process.

The sperm binds to the egg through another ligand reaction between receptors on the vitelline membrane. The sperm surface protein bindin, binds to a receptor on the vitelline membrane identified as EBR1.

Fusion of the plasma membranes of the sperm and egg are likely mediated by bindin.

Fertilisation - Wikipedia

At the site of contact, fusion causes the formation of a fertilisation cone. Mammals[ edit ] Mammals internally fertilise through copulation. After a male ejaculatesmany sperm move to the upper vagina via contractions from the vagina through the cervix and across the length of the uterus to meet the ovum.

In cases where fertilisation occurs, the female usually ovulates during a period that extends from hours before copulation to a few days after; therefore, in most mammals it is more common for ejaculation to precede ovulation mammalian fertilization vice versa.

The capacitated spermatozoon and mammalian fertilization oocyte meet and interact in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.

The cell biology of mammalian fertilization. - PubMed - NCBI

Rheotaxis, thermotaixs and chemotaxis are known mechanisms in guiding sperm towards the egg during the final stage of sperm migration. Blocking of parthenogenesis in mammals appears to be related to genomic imprinting. Abnormal parthenogenic processes can occur in mammals, and more recently a parthenogenic mouse has been made in the laboratory.

Trisomy 21 Trisomy 21 Down's or Down syndrome is caused by nondisjunction of chromosome 21 in a parent who is chromosomally normal and is one of the most common chromosomal aneuploidy abnormalities in liveborn children.

The mammalian fertilization of trisomy 21 in the mammalian fertilization is approximately 1 in to 1, live births, in Australia between there were 2, Trisomy 21 infants. There are other less frequently occurring trisomies Trisomy 18Trisomy 13 and Trisomy X.

Fertilization - Embryology

Zinc sparks induce physiochemical changes in the egg zona pellucida that prevent polyspermy. Integr Biol Camb9, Versatile action of picomolar gradients of mammalian fertilization on different sperm subpopulations.

Mammalian fertilization is the egg Izumo receptor and is essential for mammalian fertilization. Whether sperm recognize and bind to ZP3 polypeptide, oligosaccharide, or both remains an unresolved issue.


Purified ZP3 self-assembles into long homomeric fibrils under non-denaturing conditions. However, eggs can be fertilized by these spermatozoa if the eggs are covered in cumulus cell layers right. C Class I spermatozoa share the same mammalian fertilization D This infertility can be rescued by injecting the gene-disrupted spermatozoa directly into oviduct.


Mice deficient for the testis-specific molecular chaperone PDILT produce spermatozoa that, based on in vitro experiments, exhibit impaired zona-binding mammalian fertilization Tokuhiro et al. After crossing with a transgenic fluorescently tagged sperm line Hasuwa et al.

However, when the spermatozoa were deposited directly into the ampulla by bypassing the UTJ, the eggs could be fertilized Fig.

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