A free to read online and offline version of the work of Stephen Hawking & Leonard Mlodinow for A Briefer History of Time. Buy A Briefer History of Time: The Science Classic Made More Accessible on ✓ FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders. A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology (the study of the universe) by British physicist Stephen Hawking. The book became a bestseller and sold more than 10 million copies in 20 ‎: ‎


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A Briefer History of Time

He lost the bet. Hawking realized that the event horizon of a black hole could only get bigger, not smaller. The area of the event horizon of a black hole gets bigger whenever something falls into the black hole. He also realized that when two black holes combine, the size of the new event horizon is greater than or equal to the sum of the event horizons of the two other black holes.

This means briefer history time a black hole's event horizon can never get smaller.

A Brief History of Time - Wikipedia

Disorder, also known as entropyis related to black holes. There is a scientific law that has to do with entropy. This law is called the second law of thermodynamicsand it says that entropy or disorder will always increase in an isolated system for example, the universe.

The relation between briefer history time amount of entropy in a black hole and the size of the black hole's event horizon was first thought of by a research student Jacob Bekenstein and proven by Hawking, whose calculations said that black holes emit radiation.

This was strange, because it was already said that nothing can escape from a black hole's event horizon.


This problem was solved when the idea of pairs of "virtual particles" was thought of. One of the pair of particles would fall into the black hole, and the other would escape. This would look like the black hole was emitting particles.

This idea seemed strange at first, but many people accepted it after a while. The Origin and Fate of the Universe[ edit ] The Big Bang and the evolution of the universe Briefer history time the universe started and how it might end is discussed in this chapter.

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Most scientists agree that the universe started in an expansion called the Big Bang. The model briefer history time this is called the "hot big bang model". When the universe starts getting bigger, the things inside of it also begin to get cooler. When the universe was first beginning, it was infinitely hot.

The temperature of the universe cooled and the things inside the universe began to clump together. Hawking also discusses how the universe could have been.

For example, if the universe formed and then collapsed quickly, there briefer history time not be enough time for life to form. Another example would be briefer history time universe that expanded too quickly.

If a universe expanded too quickly, it would become almost empty. The idea of many universes is called the many-worlds interpretation. Inflationary models and the idea of a theory that unifies quantum mechanics and gravity also are discussed in this chapter.

A Briefer History of Time (Hawking and Mlodinow book) - Wikipedia

Each particle has many histories. This idea is known as Feynman's theory briefer history time sum over histories. A theory that unifies quantum mechanics and gravity should have Feynman's theory in it.

To find the chance that a particle will pass through a point, the waves of each particle needs to be added up. These waves happen in imaginary time.

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